The Laws of Berakhot
מרצה Title תקציר סידרה
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #26: Summary of the Definition of Lechem and Practical Applications This week, we will summarize the basic principles defining “lechem” that we have studied in great depth over the past few weeks. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #27: The Blessing of Mezonot This week, we will begin a new unit in our study of the laws of berakhot: the laws and details of each of the blessings said before eating. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #28 The Blessing of Borei Peri Ha-Gafen and Using Cooked Wine and Grape Juice for Kiddush This week, we will discuss the blessing of Borei Peri Ha-Gafen, the blessing recited before drinking wine. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #29 The Blessing Before Fruits and Vegetables (1) Borei Peri Ha-Etz and Borei Peri Ha-Adama The mishna (Berakhot 35a) teaches that there are two blessings designated for “fruit.” The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #30: The Blessing Before Fruits and Vegetables (2) Borei Peri Ha-Etz and Borei Peri Ha-Adama This week, we will begin our discussion of fruits and vegetables which changed in form and shape. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #31: The Blessing before Fruits and Vegetables (3) Cooked Vegetables, Soups, and Juices The Talmud (Berakhot 38b) discusses the blessing that one recites over cooked vegetables. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #32: The Blessing before Fruits and Vegetables (4) Sugar and Chocolate This week, we will explore whether the purpose for which something was planted affects its berakha. This will lead us to briefly relate to the proper blessing to be recited over sugar and chocolate. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #33: Birkat She-Hakol The Talmud teaches that there is another blessing, She-Hakol, which is recited over almost all other foods. This week we will discuss this berakha and when it is said and attempt to understand the nature of this specific blessing. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #34: Ikkar Ve-Tafel (1) How is one to determine which is the appropriate blessing to say over a mixture of different foods? How does one gauge which is the “dominant” ingredient? Which factors are taken into account? This week, we will briefly outline the issues relevant to this topic, and attempt to provide guidelines for practical applications. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #35: Ikkar Ve-Tafel (2) We previously discussed the principle, “whenever with one kind of food another is taken as subsidiary (tafel), a benediction is said over the principal kind (ikkar), and this serves for the subsidiary (tafel).” We noted that the Acharonim debate whether the secondary food, the tafel, is completely exempt from the blessing or whether the blessing said over the ikkar exempts the tafel. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #36: Kedimut Bi-Verakhot The Proper Order of the Berakhot In previous shiurim, we discussed the importance of birkot ha-nehenin and their centrality in the daily religious experience. In order to maintain and emphasize the integrity and honor of a blessing, the Halakha teaches that blessings must be recited with dignity and respect. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #37: Blessings Recited On Food Eaten During the Meal This week, we will discuss foods that are considered to be “machmat ha-se’uda” and therefore do not require a separate blessing. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #38: Blessings Recited On Drinks During the Meal (2) We mentioned last week that the Rishonim differ as to whether one must recite a blessing over water that one drinks during the meal. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #39: Blessings Recited Before and During a Meal This week, we will discuss berakhot recited before the meal and their impact on food eaten during the meal. We will summarize last year’s discussion regarding foods that require a blessing even during a meal. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur # 40: Interruptions (1) This week, we will begin our discussion of “interruptions” (hefsekim) that may or may or may not invalidate a blessing. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur # 41: Interruptions (2) A blessing recited at the beginning of a meal generally covers all food eaten until the end of the meal. What is the mechanism of this principle? What determines which foods are covered by the blessing, and when does the blessing “expire” and no longer cover other foods? The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur # 42: Interruptions (3) Hesech Ha-Da’at In this shiur, we will discuss the manner in which a berakha “expires” and different types of interruptions that may cause one to have a hesech ha-da’at. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #43: Interruptions (4) Shinui Makom This week, we will conclude our discussion of interruptions as we study the laws of shinui makom. According to the Talmud, under certain circumstances, when one leaves the place in which he said a blessing, he must say another blessing before eating again. We will explore the source, scope, and details of this principle The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #44: Berakha Acharona: The Shi’ur for a Berakha Acharona This week, we will begin our study of the berakha acharona, the blessings said after eating. We will first question the amount that one must eat and the manner in which it must be eaten in order to become obligated to say a berakha acharona. We will then discuss the different berakhot, Al Ha-Michya and Borei Nefashot, and the manner in which they are recited. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur # 45: Sufganiot This week, we will dedicate our shiur to a topic central to the observance of Chanuka: Sufganiot (fried donuts). The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur # 46: Berakha Acharona: The Shi’ur for a Berakha Acharona: Ke-zayit Throughout the Talmud, we find that the minimum amount that one must eat in order to fulfill a mitzva or for which one is punished is generally a ke-zayit. What is the measurement of a ke-zayit? This is the subject of our discussion in this shiur. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur # 47: Berakha Acharona Ke-Zayit – Volume or Weight In our previous shiur, we discussed the size of a ke-zayit. In this shiur, we discuss whether a ke-zayit is measured by weight or by volume. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #48: Berakha Acharona: Kedei Akhilat Peras – Foods and Liquids In the previous shiurim, we discussed the laws of the berakha acharona. We learned that one only says a berakha acharona (Al Ha-Michya, Borei Nefashot) after eating a ke-zayit of food, and we studied the size and measurement of a ke-zayit. In addition, the Posekim assume that one must eat the food within a certain time-frame, a shi’ur. This week, we will discuss the time in which one must eat a ke-zayit of food in order to become obligated to say a berakha acharona. In addition, we will discuss whether there are any differences between food and drink with regard to these questions. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky A Summary of the Halakhot of Berakha Acharona Just as one says a blessing before eating and drinking, so too afterwards one must express gratitude to God, through reciting a berakha acharona. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)
Rav David Brofsky Shiur #49: Berakha Acharona The Definition of Solids and Liquids Combining Foods for the Berakha Acharona In this shiur, we will conclude our study of the laws of the berakha acharona. We will focus on the definition of solids and liquids for the purpose of defining the shi’ur of time in which food must be eaten in order to require a berakha acharona. We will also discuss which berakha acharona should be recited when one has eaten a variety of different foods, as well as how long one may wait before reciting the berakha acharona. The Laws of Berakhot (Semester 3)

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